What to know about Diabetes!

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period.[10] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urinationincreased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosishyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular diseasestrokechronic kidney diseasefoot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2]

Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[11] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2]

  • Type 1 diabetes results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells.[2] This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.[2] The loss of beta cells is caused by an autoimmune response.[12] The cause of this autoimmune response is unknown.[2]
  • Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop.[13] This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”.[2] The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2]
  • Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels

Signs and symptoms

Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes

The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight losspolyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).[23] Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 diabetes. Other symptoms of diabetes include weight loss and tiredness.[24]

Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred visionheadachefatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. Long-term vision loss can also be caused by diabetic retinopathy. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.[

Diabetic emergencies

People (usually with type 1 diabetes) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.[26]

A rare but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), which is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration..Read More

One thought on “What to know about Diabetes!

  1. vurtil opmer says:

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